Because weight management is so important to overall health, and because our society is so focused on productivity,
many people searching for a solution for weight management opt for a quick fix. But few quick solutions address the real
issues that plague those with weight management concerns, instead focusing on symptoms (weight gain and loss) as
markers of success. (A clear indication of this truth is that while the diet fad industry has boomed, so have statistics on
Excess weight is actually associated with glucose conversion, insulin release and subsequent fat storage—all of which
affect and are affected by appetite control and satiety. Addressing these factors supports weight management around the
clock and is important to dispelling the illusion of a one-time solution.
Any type of sugar consumption causes glucose levels to rise sharply, stimulating the release of insulin, which signals the
body to store fat. A greater (and faster) rise in blood glucose will result in longer fat storage. The current consensus is that
if one can manage his or her glucose levels and insulin release, his or her weight is more easily managed. The first bit is
not as easy as it sounds—managing glucose levels involves appetite control and an understanding of hormones that most
patients are unaware exist.
This white paper will address:
• Appetite control mechanisms/hormones
• Current attitudes about weight management and misperceptions
• How nutritional factors in Mango-Plex support
I. Hormonal balance, appetite control and glucose metabolism*
Mango-Plex supports appetite control on a hormonal and neurological platform, making it one of the most innovative
weight management support formulas available.* Learn what you need to know to decide if Mango-Plex with Raspberry
Ketone is the right formula to support your patients’ weight management process—and give them a new outlook on health.
Fill out a downloadable PDF version of the guide you can reference later.
Many patients remain unaware that the process that enacts hunger and satiety actually occurs in the brain, not in the stomach. Much like our pleasure-seeking selves, our hungry selves are searching for neural satisfaction in some manner. We contribute the brain’s role in feeding to the energy homeostasis of our body, which is controlled by two sets of signals. One signal set arises from adipose tissue and “reflects what is often referred to as long-term signaling, although an alternative term is tonic signaling. The chemical signals include leptin, insulin, and certain cytokines and possibly amylin, visfatin, and adiponectin. This signaling system reflects the metabolic state of adipose tissue and, it is argued, acts as a driver for the feeding component of energy homeostasis.” (Blundell, 2006, p. S160-S163)
Summarizes Blundell in his “Perspective on the Central Control of Appetite”:
“Human appetite control is expressed through integrated sequences of behavior accompanied by oscillating states.... markers (that) reflect the operations of the homeostatic and hedonic processes... . The balance between tonic and episodic signaling (and the transformation of these signals within the brain) and the balance between homeostatic and hedonic processes ultimately determine the willingness or reluctance of people to eat or not eat. Within the prevailing.... environment, the precision of appetite control is undermined, and the neural integration favors overconsumption leading to weight gain. This gain in adipose tissue appears to further deregulate the control of appetite through the actions of both leptin and insulin resistance and through a favoring of hedonic over homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, the control over appetite becomes progressively less accurate and sensitive. This makes it critically important to understand the neural processes that are involved in the appetite control system.” (Blundell, 2006, p. S160-S163)
Adiponectin, a protein hormone that is secreted in adipocytes (the only producers of this metabolism-affecting hormone) affects glucose flux, insulin response and lipid catabolism, making it extremely important in our discussion of overall metabolism and how to support weight management.
In insulin resistant states, adiponectin is deficient. It is generally agreed, though not entirely neurologically proven, that adiponectin induces hunger. Similarly, researchers have found a correlation between leptin and excess weight, and it is generally agreed that leptin suppresses hunger.
However, there is an interesting phenomena enveloped in both of these hormones related to severe excess weight. In the body, leptin levels generally rise at night to support a change in energy management—from using glucose to using fat. But in the very overweight body, leptin levels are constantly high, and adiponectin levels are low. Therefore, the very overweight body receives two signals expressing fullness, one being “I am full” and the other “I am not hungry.” Despite these signals, in an impaired glucose management system, the body also often believes itself to be glucose deficient, and therefore craves sugar and carbohydrates despite the hormonal signals of fullness.
“As leptin levels rise with increasing adiposity in man, it is proposed to act as a negative ‘adipostatic signal’ to brain centers controlling energy homeostasis,” meaning that leptin has potential to support weight management through supporting the brain mechanisms that control such input and output signals.* (Ahima et al., 1996, p. 250-2)
This little known fact could make a big difference in where patients seek support: Changes in those hormones excreted from adipose tissue can impact appetite control and therefore weight management. With guidance and education, patients can truly grasp the importance of managing those hormones in order to manage weight and support normal fat metabolism.
Recommendations from individual doctors are one of the main causes of changes in behaviors.
Also benefiting from the quick fix mentality are the fad diet food providers that market pre-processed meal plans. A 2005 Forbes estimate details the high cost of these consumer choices: “The median diet worked out to a costly $85.79 a week -- that’s 50 percent more than the $54.44 the average single American spends on food.” (Hoffman & Rose, 2005)
Encouraging alternative support and lifestyle changes is difficult because weight management is often considered a cosmetic choice. People are less likely (than if it were considered a health concern) to seek out a health care practitioner for advice, instead turning to a company that has built trust using a mass marketing campaign. Patients should have the option to view weight management as a health issue, and creating this option is largely the health care
Despite the fact that prescription drug use and the allure of quick fixes continue to rise, there is a growing movement toward natural, alternative and non-prescription solutions for every day health, including weight management.
The National Center for Health Statistics confirms that in 2007, almost 4 out of 10 adults (38.3%) had used some type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the past 12 months.
The 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) alerts us to the fact that Americans spent $33.9 billion out of pocket on visits and purchases of CAM products, classes, and materials. (Barnes et al., 2008.)
Mango-Plex with Raspberry Ketone can be an integral part of a CAM regimen that includes exercise and psychological development processes.* Sometimes, your patients need more support than the so oft-prescribed hard work and willpower to get out of a rut or over a hump. Sometimes, a supportive agent like Mango-Plex is exactly the right supplement to make adopting a new lifestyle just that much less daunting.
Irvingia gabonensis (African mango seed) is a proven weight management supportive ingredient.* The soluble fiber contained in the seed supports fecal bulk, meaning it can support the delay of stomach emptying.* Such a delay can lead to a change in the speed of glucose absorption.* As mentioned, a sharp increase in glucose and therefore, insulin, can cause the body to store fat for longer.* Supporting the process of a slowed glucose release can support normal leptin and adiponectin levels and the body’s ability to respond appropriately to glucose intake and store fat for a shorter duration. *
Recent studies indicate that Irvingia gabonensis can support proper adipogenesis through supporting a variety of metabolic parameters and pathways, including leptin, adiponectin and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase.* In fact, “A recent in vitro study using a validated experimental model (murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes) provides compelling data that Irvingia gabonensis seed extract may inhibit adipogenesis through modulation of PPAR gamma and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase in addition to beneficial impact upon leptin and adiponectin.”* (Ngondi, Etoundi, Nyangono, Mbofung, & Oben, 2009)
In the above study, both C-reactive protein and leptin levels decreased over time.* A decrease in leptin and C-reactive protein may result in support of weight management, as there is an established correlation between high leptin levels and sharp glucose release followed by long-term fat storage. *
Further, “Plasma leptin levels are closely correlated with the level of adipose tissue.” In cases where Irvingia gabonensis has affected plasma leptin levels, the decrease is notable, and researchers expect it “may be attributable to a decrease in adipose tissue which accompanies a reduction in weight.*” (Ngondi, Etoundi, Nyangono, Mbofung, & Oben, 2009)
Irvingia gabonensis has also been examined in relation to supporting the normal activity of the erythrocyte membrane ATPase, which has low levels of activity in insulin-impaired states.*
This molecule that gives raspberries their odor and flavor profiles, also known as 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one, is known to support the secretion of adiponectin from the adipose tissue, thereby supporting appetite control and the body’s ability to feel full.* Raspberry ketone is a potent free-radical fighter, much like other red fruit components like bioflavonoids in strawberries.* As adiponectin is related to oxidative stress, it makes sense that antioxidant nutrients support a beneficial shift in adiponectin secretion to support a normal rate of glucose metabolism.* But proof is different than intuition, and recent research has proven that “diets with free-radical fighting capacity are correlated with increased adiponectin levels.*” Therefore, a source of free-radical fighters can be hypothesized to effect support in adiponectin secretion.* (Note that this is also true of African mango seed extract). *(Detopoulou et al., 2009, p. 161-8)
In reference to leptin, raspberry ketone contains further supportive agents for appetite control.* Because raspberry ketone supports proper lipid metabolism through supporting norepinephrine-induced fat burning in white adipocytes, it works by supporting the proper hormonal secretion from those adipocytes, meaning a normal level of leptin and a normal level of adiponectin.* Leptin, which functions directly to affect the hypothalamus gland, is higher in
Green coffee bean extract is important in supporting normal hormone secretion from adipocytes mainly due to its containing chlorogenic and caffeic acids.*
Chlorogenic acid supports the slowed release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal.* This results in a lesser secretion of leptin and larger secretion of adiponectin to directly impact the support of normal fat storage duration and normal glucose tolerance.*
Chlorogenic acid has been shown in in vitro studies to support normal hydrolysis of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, the mechanism that allows chlorogenic acid to support the body’s ability to regulate hepatic glycogenolysis (transformation of glycogen into glucose) and thereby support normal absorption of new glucose.*
We are all aware of the free-radical fighting content and supportive properties of green tea extract.* As mentioned, free-radical fighting support has been hypothesized to effect support in the body’s ability to regulate glucose absorption and the secretion of leptin and adiponectin from adipocytes.* Many of green tea’s supportive properties are due to its components’ tendency toward synergistic operation.* The fact that green tea supports lipolysis allows it to
support adiponectin and leptin secretion, thermogenesis, and hepatic lipid regulation and storage, thereby supporting detoxification.*
Irvingia gabonensis supports a normal metabolic rate, which can support thermogenesis.* Though not considered a thermogenic in the traditional sense, acting as a lipolytic agent, the African mango seed assists in the hydrolysis of brown fats and thereby supports the metabolic processes that cause the body to produce heat (know as thermogenic reactions.)*
The structure of raspberry ketone is similar to capsaicin (a principle component of hot red pepper known for its heat-producing properties) and synephrine. Therefore, it can be inferred that exerted actions might be similar. Recent studies function with this hypothesis in mind, generally revealing raspberry ketone’s support of lipid metabolism and subsequent thermogenesis.* Results of recent research also show that raspberry ketone supports activation of
metabolic markers in the brown fat tissue, thereby supporting thermogenesis.*
While the success of EGCG as a supplement to support weight management is well known, lesser known is what, aside from caffeine, actually effects that support.* Green tea is most famous for one of its most prolific compounds, EGCG, or Epigallocatechin Gallate, a catechin that functions as a potent free-radical fighter.*
In a 2003 report published in the International Journal of Obesity, researchers note that “green tea extract stimulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to an extent which is much greater than can be attributed to its caffeine content per se, and that its thermogenic properties could reside primarily in an interaction between its high content in catechin-polyphenols and caffeine with sympathetically released noradrenaline (NA).” * (Dulloo, Seydoux, Girardier,
Chantre, & Vandermander, 2000, p. 252-8)
Further explanation details the reason behind the researchers’ proposal: “Since catechin-polyphenols are known to (support the body’s ability to inhibit) catechol-O-methyl-transferase (the enzyme that degrades NA), and caffeine to (support the body’s ability to inhibit) trancellular phosphodiesterases (enzymes that break down NA-induced cAMP)…the green tea extract, via its catechin-polyphenols and caffeine, (supports) thermogenesis by relieving inhibition at different control points along the NA±cAMP axis.* A synergistic interaction between catechin-polyphenols and caffeine to augment and prolong sympathetic stimulation of thermogenesis could be of value in” supporting weight management attempts. * (Dulloo, Seydoux, Girardier, Chantre, & Vandermander, 2000, p. 252-8)
Based on the results of this research, we can reasonably conclude that the high content of catechin-polyphenols is an important factor in green tea extract’s support of thermogenesis and subsequent support of weight management.*
Aside from chromatic nature of their names, green tea and green coffee bean extract have some things in common. Both support metabolic rate and thermogenesis, and both seem to do so as a result of compounds that are not caffeine.* (In coffee, this fact has been determined from the appearance of beneficial shifts even in decaffeinated samples. However, it should be noted that caffeine can be a supportive agent of thermogenesis, and most studies about GCE include caffeine in information about thermogenesis.*) In GCE, the main lipolysis factor is a result of chlorogenic acids, which can support the
creation of a favorable metabolic environment and therefore, set the stage for the support of thermogenesis. *
Free-radical fighter ingredients in Mango-Plex with Raspberry Ketone support free radical neutralization, (and therefore liver health) thereby supporting the body’s detoxification process.* Because proper nutrient absorption and elimination can seriously impact weight management, foods and especially free-radical fighting ingredients that support detoxification can play a central role in a healthy lifestyle.* Just as proper fat metabolism supports detoxification, detoxification supports proper fat metabolism, creating a cyclical process your patients can actually appreciate.
Much of African mango seed extract’s detoxification supportive qualities are due to its free-radical fighting content, but there are other factors at play.* Irvingia gabonensis is a source of water-soluble dietary fiber, which supports fecal bulk, thereby supporting proper elimination of waste materials.*
Further, Irvingia gabonensis supports lipolysis of fats contained in the liver, which can promote a favorable shift in the body’s ability to detoxify the fatty substances contained therein.*
Because raspberry ketone supports adiponectin levels and norepinephrine-induced lipolysis, it has the unique quality of specifically supporting normal levels of liver and visceral adipose fat.* This potent free-radical fighter also supports liver health and proper detoxification through its support of free radical neutralization and toxin elimination.*
Of the major tea types, green tea has the highest catechin content. These strong free-radical fighters are combined with other mineral and vitamin factors to maximize their potential as supporters of free radical neutralization.* Some isolated catechins have been studied for their potential to interfere with intercellular communication in the liver, thereby supporting their own ability to properly break down glucose oxidase into the
metabolites the body needs.*
Further, research concerning green tea’s free radical fighting qualities and interaction with enzymes suggest that its polyphenols exert supportive action on superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione s-transferase, major free-radical fighters involved in liver fat metabolism, consequently supporting detoxification processes.*
One of the most evident detoxification supportive qualities of green coffee bean extract is chlorogenic acid’s ability to enter the liver without modification.* This property has an effect not only on the support of glucose metabolism, but also on detoxification, as the presence of this unaltered free-radical fighter in the liver supports fat metabolism and therefore proper elimination of toxins.* Most importantly, chlorogenic acid has been shown to support the enzymatic activity of glutathione s-transferase and NAD(P)H (quinone oxidoreductase), two free-radical fighter enzymes that support phase II detoxification processes.*
Mango-Plex with Raspberry Ketone supports appetite control and glucose metabolism to make the daunting prospect of a lifestyle change less daunting for your patients.* The four ingredients in Mango-Plex not only act as potent free-radical fighters to support the detoxification process and thermogenesis, but also offer support for normal glucose absorption through adiponectin and leptin regulation.* Perhaps MangoPlex’s most important quality is the way that these supportive effects are built on a neurological and hormonal platform.* When we deeply examine the causes of difficulty in weight management, so often we find contributions from the brain and hormonal factors. Addressing these factors, like appetite control, can support your patients’ weight management process in a way diet programs and fads simply can’t.*